$27 TRILLION to pay for Kyoto
2018-01-11 00:58:45 UTC
Climate Myth vs What the Science Says
1 "Climate's changed before" Climate reacts to whatever
forces it to change at the time; humans are now the dominant
forcing. 2 "It's the sun"
In the last 35 years of global warming, sun and climate have
been going in opposite directions
3 "It's not bad" Negative impacts of global warming on
agriculture, health & environment far outweigh any positives.
4 "There is no consensus"
97% of climate experts agree humans are causing global warming.
5 "It's cooling" The last decade 2000-2009 was the hottest on
record. 6 "Models are unreliable" Models successfully
reproduce temperatures since 1900 globally, by land, in the air
and the ocean. 7 "Temp record is unreliable" The warming
trend is the same in rural and urban areas, measured by
thermometers and satellites. 8 "Animals and plants can
adapt" Global warming will cause mass extinctions of species
that cannot adapt on short time scales. 9 "It hasn't warmed
since 1998" For global records, 2010 is the hottest year on
record, tied with 2005. 10 "Antarctica is gaining ice"
Satellites measure Antarctica losing land ice at an
accelerating rate. 11 "Ice age predicted in the 70s" The
vast majority of climate papers in the 1970s predicted warming.
12 "CO2 lags temperature" CO2 didn't initiate warming from
past ice ages but it did amplify the warming. 13 "Climate
sensitivity is low" Net positive feedback is confirmed by many
different lines of evidence. 14 "We're heading into an ice
age" Worry about global warming impacts in the next 100 years,
not an ice age in over 10,000 years. 15 "Ocean acidification
isn't serious" Ocean acidification threatens entire marine
food chains. 16 "Hockey stick is broken" Recent studies
agree that recent global temperatures are unprecedented in the
last 1000 years. 17 "Climategate CRU emails suggest
conspiracy" A number of investigations have cleared scientists
of any wrongdoing in the media-hyped email incident. 18
"Hurricanes aren't linked to global warming" There is
increasing evidence that hurricanes are getting stronger due to
global warming. 19 "Al Gore got it wrong"
Al Gore's book is quite accurate, and far more accurate than
20 "Glaciers are growing" Most glaciers are retreating,
posing a serious problem for millions who rely on glaciers for
water. 21 "It's cosmic rays" Cosmic rays show no trend over
the last 30 years & have had little impact on recent global
warming. 22 "1934 - hottest year on record" 1934 was one of
the hottest years in the US, not globally. 23 "It's freaking
cold!" A local cold day has nothing to do with the long-term
trend of increasing global temperatures. 24 "Extreme weather
isn't caused by global warming" Extreme weather events are
being made more frequent and worse by global warming. 25
"Sea level rise is exaggerated" A variety of different
measurements find steadily rising sea levels over the past
century. 26 "It's Urban Heat Island effect" Urban and rural
regions show the same warming trend. 27 "Medieval Warm
Period was warmer" Globally averaged temperature now is higher
than global temperature in medieval times. 28 "Mars is
warming" Mars is not warming globally. 29 "Arctic icemelt
is a natural cycle" Thick arctic sea ice is undergoing a rapid
retreat. 30 "Increasing CO2 has little to no effect" The
strong CO2 effect has been observed by many different
measurements. 31 "Oceans are cooling" The most recent ocean
measurements show consistent warming. 32 "It's a 1500 year
cycle" Ancient natural cycles are irrelevant for attributing
recent global warming to humans. 33 "Human CO2 is a tiny %
of CO2 emissions" The natural cycle adds and removes CO2 to
keep a balance; humans add extra CO2 without removing any. 34
"IPCC is alarmist"
Numerous papers have documented how IPCC predictions are more
likely to underestimate the climate response.
35 "Water vapor is the most powerful greenhouse gas"
Rising CO2 increases atmospheric water vapor, which makes
global warming much worse.
36 "Polar bear numbers are increasing" Polar bears are in
danger of extinction as well as many other species. 37 "CO2
limits will harm the economy"
The benefits of a price on carbon outweigh the costs several
38 "It's not happening"
There are many lines of evidence indicating global warming is
39 "Greenland was green" Other parts of the earth got colder
when Greenland got warmer. 40 "Greenland is gaining ice"
Greenland on the whole is losing ice, as confirmed by
satellite measurement. 41 "CO2 is not a pollutant"
Through its impacts on the climate, CO2 presents a danger to
public health and welfare, and thus qualifies as an air
42 "CO2 is plant food"
The effects of enhanced CO2 on terrestrial plants are variable
and complex and dependent on numerous factors
43 "Other planets are warming" Mars and Jupiter are not
warming, and anyway the sun has recently been cooling slightly.
44 "Arctic sea ice has recovered" Thick arctic sea ice is
in rapid retreat. 45 "There's no empirical evidence" There
are multiple lines of direct observations that humans are
causing global warming. 46 "There's no correlation between
CO2 and temperature" There is long-term correlation between
CO2 and global temperature; other effects are short-term. 47
"We're coming out of the Little Ice Age"
Scientists have determined that the factors which caused the
Little Ice Age cooling are not currently causing global warming
48 "It cooled mid-century" Mid-century cooling involved
aerosols and is irrelevant for recent global warming. 49
"Global warming stopped in 1998, 1995, 2002, 2007, 2010, ????"
Global temperature is still rising and 2010 was the hottest
50 "CO2 was higher in the past"
When CO2 was higher in the past, the sun was cooler.
51 "It warmed before 1940 when CO2 was low" Early 20th
century warming is due to several causes, including rising CO2.
52 "Satellites show no warming in the troposphere" The most
recent satellite data show that the earth as a whole is
warming. 53 "It's aerosols" Aerosols have been masking
global warming, which would be worse otherwise. 54
"2009-2010 winter saw record cold spells" A cold day in
Chicago in winter has nothing to do with the trend of global
warming. 55 "It's El Niño" El Nino has no trend and so is
not responsible for the trend of global warming. 56 "Mt.
Kilimanjaro's ice loss is due to land use" Most glaciers are
in rapid retreat worldwide, notwithstanding a few complicated
cases. 57 "It's not us" Multiple sets of independent
observations find a human fingerprint on climate change. 58
"It's a natural cycle" No known natural forcing fits the
fingerprints of observed warming except anthropogenic
greenhouse gases. 59 "There's no tropospheric hot spot" We
see a clear "short-term hot spot" - there's various evidence
for a "long-term hot spot". 60 "It's Pacific Decadal
Oscillation" The PDO shows no trend, and therefore the PDO is
not responsible for the trend of global warming. 61
"Scientists can't even predict weather" Weather and climate
are different; climate predictions do not need weather detail.
62 "IPCC were wrong about Himalayan glaciers"
Glaciers are in rapid retreat worldwide, despite 1 error in 1
paragraph in a 1000 page IPCC report.
63 "Greenhouse effect has been falsified" The greenhouse
effect is standard physics and confirmed by observations. 64
"2nd law of thermodynamics contradicts greenhouse theory" The
2nd law of thermodynamics is consistent with the greenhouse
effect which is directly observed. 65 "CO2 limits will hurt
Those who contribute the least greenhouse gases will be most
impacted by climate change.
66 "The science isn't settled" That human CO2 is causing
global warming is known with high certainty & confirmed by
observations. 67 "Sea level rise predictions are
exaggerated" Sea level rise is now increasing faster than
predicted due to unexpectedly rapid ice melting. 68 "Clouds
provide negative feedback" Evidence is building that net cloud
feedback is likely positive and unlikely to be strongly
negative. 69 "It's the ocean" The oceans are warming and
moreover are becoming more acidic, threatening the food chain.
70 "IPCC were wrong about Amazon rainforests"
The IPCC statement on Amazon rainforests was correct, and was
incorrectly reported in some media.
71 "Corals are resilient to bleaching" Globally about 1% of
coral is dying out each year. 72 "Volcanoes emit more CO2
than humans" Humans emit 100 times more CO2 than volcanoes.
73 "CO2 effect is saturated" Direct measurements find that
rising CO2 is trapping more heat. 74 "Greenland ice sheet
won't collapse" When Greenland was 3 to 5 degrees C warmer
than today, a large portion of the Ice Sheet melted. 75 "CO2
is just a trace gas"
Many substances are dangerous even in trace amounts; what
really matters is the total amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.
76 "It's methane" Methane plays a minor role in global
warming but could get much worse if permafrost starts to melt.
77 "500 scientists refute the consensus" Around 97% of
climate experts agree that humans are causing global warming.
78 "CO2 has a short residence time" Excess CO2 from human
emissions has a long residence time of over 100 years 79
"CO2 measurements are suspect" CO2 levels are measured by
hundreds of stations across the globe, all reporting the same
trend. 80 "Humidity is falling" Multiple lines of
independent evidence indicate humidity is rising and provides
positive feedback. 81 "Neptune is warming" And the sun is
cooling. 82 "Springs aren't advancing" Hundreds of flowers
across the UK are flowering earlier now than any time in 250
years. 83 "Jupiter is warming" Jupiter is not warming, and
anyway the sun is cooling. 84 "It's land use" Land use
plays a minor role in climate change, although carbon
sequestration may help to mitigate. 85 "Scientists tried to
'hide the decline' in global temperature" The 'decline' refers
to a decline in northern tree-rings, not global temperature,
and is openly discussed in papers and the IPCC reports. 86
"CO2 is not increasing" CO2 is increasing rapidly, and is
reaching levels not seen on the earth for millions of years.
87 "Record snowfall disproves global warming" Warming leads
to increased evaporation and precipitation, which falls as
increased snow in winter. 88 "They changed the name from
'global warming' to 'climate change'"
'Global warming' and 'climate change' mean different things and
have both been used for decades.
89 "Solar Cycle Length proves its the sun" The sun has not
warmed since 1970 and so cannot be driving global warming. 90
"CO2 is coming from the ocean" The ocean is absorbing massive
amounts of CO2, and is becoming more acidic as a result. 91
"IPCC overestimate temperature rise"
Monckton used the IPCC equation in an inappropriate manner.
92 "Pluto is warming" And the sun has been recently cooling.
93 "CO2 is not the only driver of climate" Theory, models
and direct measurement confirm CO2 is currently the main driver
of climate change. 94 "Peer review process was corrupted"
An Independent Review concluded that CRU's actions were normal
and didn't threaten the integrity of peer review. 95 "Arctic
was warmer in 1940"
The actual data show high northern latitudes are warmer today
than in 1940.
96 "Renewable energy is too expensive"
When you account for all of the costs associated with burning
coal and other fossil fuels, like air pollution and health
effects, in reality they are significantly more expensive than
most renewable energy sources.
97 "Southern sea ice is increasing" Antarctic sea ice has
grown in recent decades despite the Southern Ocean warming at
the same time. 98 "Sea level rise is decelerating"
Global sea level data shows that sea level rise has been
increasing since 1880 while future sea level rise predictions
are based on physics, not statistics.
99 "CO2 limits will make little difference"
If every nation agrees to limit CO2 emissions, we can achieve
significant cuts on a global scale.
100 "It's microsite influences" Microsite influences on
temperature changes are minimal; good and bad sites show the
same trend. 101 "Lindzen and Choi find low climate
sensitivity" Lindzen and Chois paper is viewed as
unacceptably flawed by other climate scientists. 102 "Phil
Jones says no global warming since 1995" Phil Jones was
misquoted. 103 "Humans are too insignificant to affect
global climate" Humans are small but powerful, and human CO2
emissions are causing global warming. 104 "Dropped stations
introduce warming bias" If the dropped stations had been kept,
the temperature would actually be slightly higher. 105 "It's
too hard" Scientific studies have determined that current
technology is sufficient to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
enough to avoid dangerous climate change. 106 "It's not
A large amount of warming is delayed, and if we dont act now
we could pass tipping points.
107 "It's albedo" Albedo change in the Arctic, due to
receding ice, is increasing global warming. 108 "Tree-rings
diverge from temperature after 1960" This is a detail that is
complex, local, and irrelevant to the observed global warming
trend. 109 "It's soot"
Soot stays in the atmosphere for days to weeks; carbon dioxide
causes warming for centuries.
110 "Roy Spencer finds negative feedback" Spencer's model is
too simple, excluding important factors like ocean dynamics and
treats cloud feedbacks as forcings. 111 "Hansen's 1988
prediction was wrong"
Jim Hansen had several possible scenarios; his mid-level
scenario B was right.
112 "It's global brightening" This is a complex aerosol
effect with unclear temperature significance. 113 "Earth
hasn't warmed as much as expected" This argument ignores the
cooling effect of aerosols and the planet's thermal inertia.
114 "Arctic sea ice loss is matched by Antarctic sea ice gain"
Arctic sea ice loss is three times greater than Antarctic sea
ice gain. 115 "It's a climate regime shift" There is no
evidence that climate has chaotic regimes on a long-term
basis. 116 "Solar cycles cause global warming" Over recent
decades, the sun has been slightly cooling & is irrelevant to
recent global warming. 117 "Less than half of published
scientists endorse global warming" Around 97% of climate
experts agree that humans are causing global warming. 118
"Over 31,000 scientists signed the OISM Petition Project" The
'OISM petition' was signed by only a few climatologists. 119
"Ice isn't melting"
Arctic sea ice has shrunk by an area equal to Western
Australia, and summer or multi-year sea ice might be all gone
within a decade.
120 "A drop in volcanic activity caused warming" Volcanoes
have had no warming effect in recent global warming - if
anything, a cooling effect. 121 "IPCC disappeared the
Medieval Warm Period"
The IPCC simply updated their temperature history graphs to
show the best data available at the time.
122 "Climate is chaotic and cannot be predicted" Weather is
chaotic but climate is driven by Earth's energy imbalance,
which is more predictable. 123 "Sea level is not rising"
The claim sea level isnt rising is based on blatantly
doctored graphs contradicted by observations. 124 "It's
ozone" Ozone has only a small effect. 125 "Freedom of
Information (FOI) requests were ignored" An independent
inquiry found CRU is a small research unit with limited
resources and their rigour and honesty are not in doubt. 126
"Climate 'Skeptics' are like Galileo" Modern scientists, not
anti-science skeptics, follow in Galileos footsteps. 127
"The IPCC consensus is phoney"
113 nations signed onto the 2007 IPCC report, which is simply a
summary of the current body of climate science evidence
128 "Tuvalu sea level isn't rising" Tuvalu sea level is
rising 3 times larger than the global average. 129 "Naomi
Oreskes' study on consensus was flawed" Benny Peiser, the
Oreskes critic, retracted his criticism. 130 "Renewables
can't provide baseload power"
A number of renewable sources already do provide baseload
power, and we don't need renewables to provide a large
percentage of baseload power immediately.
131 "Trenberth can't account for the lack of warming"
Trenberth is talking about the details of energy flow, not
whether global warming is happening. 132 "Ice Sheet losses
are overestimated" A number of independent measurements find
extensive ice loss from Antarctica and Greenland. 133 "CRU
tampered with temperature data" An independent inquiry went
back to primary data sources and were able to replicate CRU's
results. 134 "Melting ice isn't warming the Arctic" Melting
ice leads to more sunlight being absorbed by water, thus
heating the Arctic. 135 "Breathing contributes to CO2
buildup" By breathing out, we are simply returning to the air
the same CO2 that was there to begin with. 136 "Satellite
error inflated Great Lakes temperatures" Temperature errors in
the Great Lakes region are not used in any global temperature
records. 137 "Soares finds lack of correlation between CO2
and temperature" Soares looks at short-term trends which are
swamped by natural variations while ignoring the long-term
correlation. 138 "We're heading into cooling" There is no
scientific basis for claims that the planet will begin to cool
in the near future. 139 "Murry Salby finds CO2 rise is
natural" Multiple lines of evidence make it very clear that
the rise in atmospheric CO2 is due to human emissions. 140
"CO2 emissions do not correlate with CO2 concentration" That
humans are causing the rise in atmospheric CO2 is confirmed by
multiple isotopic analyses. 141 "The sun is getting hotter"
The sun has just had the deepest solar minimum in 100 years.
142 "It's waste heat" Greenhouse warming is adding 100 times
more heat to the climate than waste heat. 143 "Water vapor
in the stratosphere stopped global warming" This possibility
just means that future global warming could be even worse.
144 "It warmed just as fast in 1860-1880 and 1910-1940" The
warming trend over 1970 to 2001 is greater than warming from
both 1860 to 1880 and 1910 to 1940. 145 "An exponential
increase in CO2 will result in a linear increase in
temperature" CO2 levels are rising so fast that unless we
decrease emissions, global warming will accelerate this
century. 146 "Record high snow cover was set in winter
2008/2009" Winter snow cover in 2008/2009 was average while
the long-term trend in spring, summer, and annual snow cover is
rapid decline. 147 "Mauna Loa is a volcano" The global
trend is calculated from hundreds of CO2 measuring stations and
confirmed by satellites. 148 "Venus doesn't have a runaway
Venus very likely underwent a runaway or moist greenhouse
phase earlier in its history, and today is kept hot by a dense
149 "Water levels correlate with sunspots" This detail is
irrelevant to the observation of global warming caused by
humans. 150 "Antarctica is too cold to lose ice" Glaciers
are sliding faster into the ocean because ice shelves are
thinning due to warming oceans. 151 "Positive feedback means
runaway warming" Positive feedback won't lead to runaway
warming; diminishing returns on feedback cycles limit the
amplification. 152 "Skeptics were kept out of the IPCC?"
Official records, Editors and emails suggest CRU scientists
acted in the spirit if not the letter of IPCC rules.
153 "CO2 was higher in the late Ordovician" The sun was much
cooler during the Ordovician. 154 "Coral atolls grow as sea
levels rise" Thousands of coral atolls have "drowned" when
unable to grow fast enough to survive at sea level. 155
"It's internal variability"
Internal variability can only account for small amounts of
warming and cooling over periods of decades, and scientific
studies have consistently shown that it cannot account for the
global warming over the past century.
156 "CO2 increase is natural, not human-caused" Many lines of
evidence, including simple accounting, demonstrate beyond a
shadow of a doubt that the increase in atmospheric CO2 is due
to human fossil fuel burning. 157 "It's CFCs" CFCs
contribute at a small level. 158 "Scientists retracted claim
that sea levels are rising" The Siddall 2009 paper was
retracted because its predicted sea level rise was too low.
159 "Warming causes CO2 rise" Recent warming is due to rising
CO2. 160 "Renewable energy investment kills jobs"
Investment in renewable energy creates more jobs than
investment in fossil fuel energy. 161 "Greenland has only
lost a tiny fraction of its ice mass" Greenland's ice loss is
accelerating & will add metres of sea level rise in upcoming
centuries. 162 "DMI show cooling Arctic" While summer
maximums have showed little trend, the annual average Arctic
temperature has risen sharply in recent decades. 163 "CO2
limits won't cool the planet" CO2 limits won't cool the
planet, but they can make the difference between continued
accelerating global warming to catastrophic levels vs. slowing
and eventually stopping the warming at hopefully safe levels
164 "Royal Society embraces skepticism" The Royal Society
still strongly state that human activity is the dominant cause
of global warming. 165 "It's only a few degrees" A few
degrees of global warming has a huge impact on ice sheets, sea
levels and other aspects of climate. 166 "97% consensus on
human-caused global warming has been disproven"
The 97% consensus has been independently confirmed by a number
of different approaches and lines of evidence.
167 "It's satellite microwave transmissions" Satellite
transmissions are extremely small and irrelevant. 168 "CO2
only causes 35% of global warming"
CO2 and corresponding water vapor feedback are the biggest
cause of global warming.
169 "Sea level fell in 2010" The temporary drop in sea level
in 2010 was due to intense land flooding caused by a strong La
Nina. 170 "Arctic sea ice extent was lower in the past"
Current Arctic sea ice extent is the lowest in the past several
171 "We didn't have global warming during the Industrial
Revolution" CO2 emissions were much smaller 100 years ago.
172 "Ljungqvist broke the hockey stick"
Ljungqvist's temperature reconstruction is very similar to
other reconstructions by Moberg and Mann.
173 "Hansen predicted the West Side Highway would be
Hansen was speculating on changes that might happen if CO2
174 "Removing all CO2 would make little difference" Removing
CO2 would cause most water in the air to rain out and cancel
most of the greenhouse effect. 175 "Postma disproved the
greenhouse effect" Postma's model contains many simple errors;
in no way does Postma undermine the existence or necessity of
the greenhouse effect. 176 "Heatwaves have happened before"
Global warming is increasing the frequency, duration and
intensity of heatwaves.